Trophallaxis, the mouth to mouth regurgitation and transfer of liquid food between members of eusocial insect societies, is an important process that allows the fast and efficient dissemination of food in the colony. 


How do curved structures fold? How could one design origami with paper that is not intrinsically flat? Inspired by the natural folding of pollen grains, and other biological structures, we investigate how simple geometrical and mechanical design principles determine the folding pathways of structures with non-zero intrinsic curvature.


From the animal blood circulatory systems to the plant xylem and phloem, distribution networks deliver load and remove waste, while adapting to competing evolutionary pressures. We are interested in understanding the evolutionary pressures behind the complex reticulate architectures we frequently observe in a variety of systems.