VANCOUVER, CANADA—ABC News Australia reports that statistical geneticist Ryan Bohlender of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and his team developed a new computer model to evaluate the possible relationships among the ancestors of modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans. The tool varied estimations of population size and dates for when the populations stopped interbreeding, and accounted for inconsistencies in previous studies of genomes of modern and archaic humans. The analysis suggests that interbreeding occurred both within and outside of Africa, that the early population in Africa was 50 percent larger than had been thought, and that modern humans diverged from the family tree some 440,000 years ago. The study also suggests that the different populations may have interbred less frequently than previously thought, and in similar numbers in Europe and in East Asia. (It had been suggested that interbreeding occurred more frequently in East Asia.) And, according to Bohlender, Melanesians may carry a small amount of DNA from an unidentified, extinct human species. Future computer simulations will add additional populations into the mix to see how they affect the results. For more, go to “A New Human Relative.”
CANTABRIA, SPAIN—Cosmos reports that human hunters may have contributed to the extinction of Panthera spelaea, the Eurasian cave lion, some 14,000 years ago. Marian Cueto of the Universidad de Cantabria and her team examined nine lion claws, or phalanxes, recovered in La Garma, a cave in northern Spain associated with human rituals during the Upper Paleolithic period. They found cut marks and signs of scraping on the bones similar to the ones made by modern hunters when they skin an animal in a way that keeps the claws attached to the pelt. The researchers add that the locations of the bones on the cave floor suggest that the pelt may have been used as a floor covering. For more on the relationship between ancient people and cats, go to “Baby Bobcat,” which was one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2015.
MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN—NPR reports that archaeologist Bettina Arnold of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and her research team worked with Lakefront Brewery to try to re-create an alcoholic beverage that had been placed in a bronze cauldron and buried in a grave sometime between 400 and 450 B.C. in what is now Germany. The recipe was based upon the research of paleobotanist Manfred Rösch, who analyzed the residues in the Iron Age cauldron. He found evidence of honey, meadowsweet, barley, and mint—ingredients in a type of beverage known as a braggot. The experimental mixture took seven hours to make. It was then left to ferment for two weeks, producing a smooth drink with an herbal, minty taste. “I don’t think people would be interested in purchasing it to drink,” commented Chris Ranson of Lakefront Brewery. To read about another find from the same time period, go to “Tomb of a Highborn Celt,” which was one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2015.
Rick Brannan is in the midst of writing lexical commentaries on the pastoral epistles. The volume on 1 Timothy is finished and available on Amazon and currently on prepub at Logos:
All this is exciting not only because the content and analysis in the commentary is top knotch, but also because the proceeds from the book are going to fund the Brannan family’s adoption.
Quality materials, worth cause, seems like a no brainer, right?
In this final interview with Professor Paul Foster he discusses some major themes of Colossians along with the aims of his commentary. Professor Foster’s BNTC commentary on Colossians can be purchased here.
Bells with Water Buffalo Heads, copper alloy, 1 ¼ x 1 in.
Ban Chiang culture, Thailand, 300 B.C.-A.D. 150
Neanderthalers in koude gebieden consumeerden vermoedelijk veel meer plantaardig voedsel dan tot nu toe werd aangenomen. Dat ontdekte archeoloog Robert Power dankzij nieuw tandsteenonderzoek. Power verdedigt volgende week zijn doctoraat aan de Universiteit Leiden.
In de warmere mediterrane gebieden van Eurazië maakten planten een wezenlijk onderdeel uit van het menu van de neanderthalers. Maar dat gold niet voor de koudere gebieden zoals de mammoetsteppen, dachten paleoantropologen. De mammoetsteppe, een bijna geheel boomloze steppetoendra, was tijdens de koude periodes van het Pleistoceen het dominante landschap van Midden-Europa tot Oost-Azië. In deze gebieden zouden de neanderthalers, die leefden tussen 180.000 en 30.000 jaar geleden, hoofdzakelijk vlees hebben gegeten van grote wilde dieren zoals mammoeten. Die eenzijdige voeding maakte deze mensensoort kwetsbaar en droeg mogelijk bij aan hun uitsterven, was de redenering.
De Leidse archeoloog Robert Power ontdekte nu echter dat neanderthalers wel degelijk ook in deze koude en droge omgeving geregeld planten geconsumeerd moeten hebben. “De mammoetsteppe is een omgeving die we nog niet goed begrijpen omdat die niet meer bestaat vanwege klimaatverandering. Deze oude graslanden waren waarschijnlijk bruikbaarder voor neanderthalers dan altijd gedacht is.” Power onderzocht microbotanische deeltjes in het tandsteen van opgegraven neanderthalertanden. Deze waren afkomstig uit zes verschillende archeologische vindplaatsen, waaronder in Kroatië, Italië en Rusland.
Power onderzocht ook de betrouwbaarheid van tandsteen als bron in de reconstructie van voeding. Dat deed hij onder andere door het tandsteen te bestuderen van een groep recent overleden chimpansees waarvan de voeding twintig jaar lang was bijgehouden. Hierdoor kon hij bevestigen dat tandsteen een betrouwbare afspiegeling is van een langdurig voedingspatroon.
Éditeur : Brepols
Collection : Monothéismes et Philosophie, 21
ISBN : 978-2-503-56545-3
Le scepticisme, dans le langage commun actuel, est considéré comme l'opposé de la religion. Mais l'opposition entre foi et scepticisme n'est que le produit paradoxal d'une histoire où scepticisme et religion sont dans une relation diachronique longue et forte. La richesse de cette relation a été mise en évidence pour certaines périodes, comme le 16e et le 17e siècles, par les travaux de R. Popkin, et par les travaux portant sur Montaigne et le « libertinage ». En revanche, la question a été beaucoup moins approfondie pour l'Antiquité et le Moyen Age, et il n'a jamais été tenté véritablement d'examiner si la relation entre ces deux éléments peut être analysée comme un continuum structurel ou comme des connivences ponctuelles dans l'histoire de la philosophie. Les contributions réunies dans ce volume, qui vont de la philosophie hellénistique à la philosophie médiévale, visent donc à repenser sans préjugé la totalité du problème, avec l'espoir d'aboutir à une représentation nouvelle du lien ou de l'absence de lien entre ces deux éléments fondamentaux de la pensée occidentale.
The Israel Antiquities Authority has issued a press release with an accompanying video (below) describing a rare papyrus dating to the time of Judah’s monarchy and mentioning the name of Jerusalem. The two-line document measures 4 inches long and 1 inch tall and describes jars of wine shipped to Jerusalem. It was written by a high-ranking female official in the time of Kings Manasseh or Josiah. The papyrus was discovered by antiquities thieves working in a cave in the Judean wilderness.
From the press release:
“Two lines of ancient Hebrew script were preserved on the document that is made of papyrus (paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant [Cyperus papyrus]). A paleographic examination of the letters and a C14 analysis determined that the artifact should be dated to the seventh century BCE – to the end of the First Temple period. Most of the letters are clearly legible, and the proposed reading of the text appears as follows:
[מא]מת. המלך. מנערתה. נבלים. יין. ירשלמה.
[me-a]mat. ha-melekh. me-Na?artah. nevelim. yi’in. Yerushalima.
From the king’s maidservant, from Na?arat, jars of wine, to Jerusalem
“This is a rare and original shipping document from the time of the First Temple, indicating the payment of taxes or transfer of goods to storehouses in Jerusalem, the capital city of the kingdom at this time. The document specifies the status of the sender of the shipment (the king’s maidservant), the name of the settlement from which the shipment was dispatched (Na'arat), the contents of the vessels (wine), their number or amount (jars) and their destination (Jerusalem). Na'artah, which is mentioned in the text, is the same Na'arat that is referred to in the description of the border between Ephraim and Benjamin in Joshua 16:7: “And it went down from Janohah to Ataroth, and to Na'arat, and came to Jericho, and went out at Jordan”.
“According to Dr. Eitan Klein, deputy director of the IAA’s Unit for the Prevention of Antiquities Robbery, “The document represents extremely rare evidence of the existence of an organized administration in the Kingdom of Judah. It underscores the centrality of Jerusalem as the economic capital of the kingdom in the second half of the seventh century BCE. According to the Bible, the kings Menashe [Manasseh], Amon, or Josiah ruled in Jerusalem at this time; however, it is not possible to know for certain which of the kings of Jerusalem was the recipient of the shipment of wine”.
“Israel Prize laureate and biblical scholar Prof. (Emeritus) Shmuel Ahituv attests to the scientific importance of the document, ‘It’s not just that this papyrus is the earliest extra-biblical source to mention Jerusalem in Hebrew writing; it is the fact that to date no other documents written on papyrus dating to the First Temple period have been discovered in Israel, except one from Wadi Murabbaat. Also outstanding in the document is the unusual status of a woman in the administration of the Kingdom of Judah in the seventh century BCE.’”
The full press release includes more quotes from senior officials.
One assumes that the cave where this papyrus was discovered was thoroughly searched, but no additional fragments were found. Even so, it surely increases hope that more such ancient documents are preserved. Hopefully the IAA will get ahead of the thieves by conducting more excavations. With a tantalizing discovery like this one, I suspect that the public might be willing to support it financially.
I’m trying to think of other papyrus fragments from the time of Jerusalem’s destruction in 586 BC and earlier, and none are coming to mind. The press release does not mention any. If this is unique in that regard, this discovery is all the more remarkable.
Here are some things to remember, as this Jerusalem Papyrus garners attention:
I. The fact that the papyrus itself has been carbon dated to the 7th century BCE certainly does not mean that the writing on the papyrus is ancient In fact, it really means nothing. After all, ancient papyrus is readily available for purchase online (check the web and see!), thus, no modern forger worth his or her salt would forge an inscription on modern papyrus. Rather, he or she would purchase some ancient papyrus online and then write a text on it. It happens fairly often (the Marzeah Papyrus is a good example of this, as is the Jesus Wife Papyrus). In short, for anyone to conclude that the inscription must be ancient because the papyrus is ancient is quite absurd and naïve. Thus, Caveat Eruditus.
II. There are some palaeographic and orthographic anomalies and inconsistencies in this papyrus inscription that are concerning and may suggest that it is modern, not ancient. Thus, again, Caveat Eruditus.
III. Modern forgers often use sensational content….after all this *raises* the price and it *lowers* the critical thinking capacity of those who very much wish for something to be true (e.g., the Jesus Wife Papyrus, the James Ossuary, and Jehoash Inscription, Moussaieff Ostraca, etc.). The content of the Jerusalem Papyrus is certainly sensational…and it is ever so convenient that on this piece with so few words such sensational content was found.
IV. The Jerusalem Papyrus is from the antiquities market and it has been floating around on the market for a few years now. It was not found on an actual archaeological excavation. I saw some good images of it a few years ago in Jerusalem.
V. There are many modern inscriptional forgeries on the market, as I have argued in various publications, for some fifteen years now (most of these articles are available via www.academia.edu). The money that modern forgers and dealers can make on modern forgeries is astronomical, consistently in the five and six figure range. The motivation is strong. In this case, this papyrus was seized, but that does not mean that it could not have been produced in the modern period with the intent of marketing it.
VI. Forgeries are often reported to have “been found here, or there, at some specific location. This has been the case since long before the Shapira Forgeries of the mid to late 1800s. And it was the case with the Hebron Philistine Inscriptions, the Jehoash Inscription, the Ivory Pomegranate, the James Ossuary and so many others. In short, I’m sure that some story will surface about the purported “find spot” of this papyrus inscription. I would urge caution, though, as forgers and dealers have a strong vested interest in attempting to dupe.
VII. In short, to those wishing to declare that the letters on this papyrus inscription are ancient, I would say: ‘Not so fast!’
VIII. Ultimately, I believe that there is a fair chance that although the papyrus itself is ancient the ink letters are actually modern…that is, this inscription is something that I would classify as a possible modern forgery.
IX. Recently, I signed a contract with Eerdmans Publishing for a volume (almost entirely completed at this time) entitled _Forging History in the Ancient World of the Bible & the Modern World of Biblical Studies_. The Jerusalem Papyrus inscription will be in that volume…
Dr. Christopher A. Rollston, George Washington University
The part of Hattusa located at the foot of the Royal Citadel (tr. Büyükkale) is known as the Lower City (tr. Aşağı Şehir). It is also the first stopover on the designated Hattusa sightseeing trail. In this area, it is possible to see the ruins of the Grand Temple, the remains of an Assyrian trade colony, and the traces of residential houses and offices.
This week is #OpenAccessWeek which is one of those fake holidays like Halloween or University Educators Day. But like those other two celebrations, this week has a beneficial goal (as well as supporting a growing number of Open Access Week cards and gift): to promote open access publishing.
This week also marked the release of the Digital Press at the University of North Dakota’s newest book: Mobilizing the Past for a Digital Future: The Potential of Digital Archaeology. If you haven’t checked it out yet… why not?
With about 3 days under our belt, I can report on some of the early statistics for the book. So far, we’ve had just under 550 downloads of the book or parts of the book. 53% of those downloads were of the entire book, and no other chapter really set itself apart as the leading individual chapter download. Contributors have started to post their contributions and the entire book onto their Academia.edu pages and institutional repositories. So my numbers will only reflects the most centralized points of distribution. The real circulation takes place far from the center. There are no originals!
We’ve sold a handful of paper copies, but the real circulation impact will likely come from digital downloads. And that’s fine with me, but I do wonder whether this book will lag in paper sales compared to downloads. Punk Archaeology, for example, which has well over 2000 downloads, has never sold more than handful of copies (52, to be exact). In contrast, The War with the Sioux, has had about 900 downloads and sold 232 copies. The Bakken Goes Boom has had about 1000 downloads and has sold 115 paper copies. We were particularly excited to see it appear on the Standing Rock Syllabus project and hope that its open access status makes it useful to folks on the front line of the Dakota Access Pipeline debate. What’s interesting is that Punk Archaeology – perhaps anticipating Mobilizing the Past – has been cited more times and more widely than my first official monograph which appeared in the same year, Pyla-Koutsopetria I: An Archaeological Survey of an Ancient Coastal Town (2014). This is despite PKAP I appearing in almost 70 academic libraries and Punk Archaeology appearing in … like 4. I’m sure that over time, this will level out, but considering Punk Archaeology was published as the first book from a new press, I think this speaks to the potential of open access scholarship to reach new audiences quickly.
As we look ahead to the next year with The Digital Press, we are making plans to continue our open access and digital trajectories with both new “conventional books” but also some interactive or serialized works that develop as conversations over time and then crystalize – to some extent – into a formal volume later before once again heading off into the world under an open license (CC-By 4.0). So stay tuned!
I don’t tend to get overly personal on this blog very often. Although I adore social media (clearly), the first person singular is an uncomfortable voice when I address the public as a historian. I have always used banter about ancient or medieval history as a kind of protective tortoise shell that makes me seem extroverted. However, I did want to post a blog today that reflects a bit on the process of transitioning your book from a dissertation format to a published monograph–along with some personal anecdotes. The occasion? After ten years of ruminating on Greco-Roman disreputable tradesmen and the socio-legal construction of dishonor, my book, Trade and Taboo: Disreputable Professions in the Roman Mediterranean, has come out with the University of Michigan Press. Here are a few things I learned:
5. Take a Break From the Dissertation: After you defend your dissertation, you need to put the book in a drawer for a little while. Tell the printed copy (you know, the one with all those fresh signatures on the top) that while you love it, you need a little “me time” where you don’t see each other. Then lock it in a desk and forget about it for 6 months. While you are doing this, begin to think about all the things that didn’t make it into that dissertation. Gather the proverbial hair off of the beauty shop floor. These research scraps can usually form the beginnings of at least one article. For me, the book was focused on artisans and tradesmen, and yet I had all this research on late antique heretics, apostates, and non-Christians that received the stigma of infamia in Late Antiquity. Eventually (with much aid from James Rives and Andrew Riggsby in particular), this became an article called, “Altering Infamy: Status, Violence, and Civic Exclusion in Late Antiquity.” During this time, you will be developing clearer eyes for when you return to the dissertation.
4. Reflect On Whether You Need a Monograph In Your Life At All: Not all dissertations will make good monographs. Moreover, I am not convinced that the monograph is the end-all and be-all of becoming an “academic.” It is not the ruler by which we must measure greatness either now or in the future; however, the field of history generally requires a monograph for tenure requirements, and thus I began to re-conceptualize and adapt my book for those requirements. First, I started to write a book prospectus (you can download it here (PDF): bond_prospectus) after emailing Prof. Greg Aldrete at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. Why did I do this? I have admired Greg and his writing for years. I want to be Greg when I grow up. Ergo, I modeled my book proposal and my tone on a successful prospectus from someone I truly admire. Greg and his wife Alicia would become integral to this book in so many myriad ways, but it all began with a cold-call email to him (get used to these). He responded by sharing his book prospectus for Floods of the Tiber with me. Veteran historians: If you can? Always share a book prospectus with younger authors. We don’t know what we are doing about 87% of the time, and, well, we need your mentorship.
3. Conference: Yes, that is right. I am using this word as the ever important academic verb “to conference.” I presented some new research on Roman tanning practices at a conference called the Association of Ancient Historians (AAH) while writing the chapter on tanners. Like a standup comic, it gave me a chance to try out new material. And at that conference, a professor heard my paper and introduced me to the executive editor at the press I would later work with, University of Michigan Press. You have to get your work out there and present it. There is no use keeping your brilliant thoughts on the page alone. Conferences allow you to workshop your chapters with people that can not only give you good feedback, they can introduce you to editors and other people that can help you. It is cliché to say “it is who you know,” but there is a lot of truth to this. Also, don’t be ashamed to apply for early career aid to help you afford the travel. I know it ain’t cheap, but it is necessary.
2. Blog: Writing is a muscle and you want to be buff, don’t you? I would suggest beginning to blog much earlier, say, during the writing of your dissertation, but if you haven’t started to create an online voice, you need to. You are not Ariel. You need a voice that is recognizable. Blogging and Twitter also allow you to meet people doing similar work to you and begin to develop your own ideas. A lot of people tell me they are afraid to put their dissertation thoughts or current research online, but please do not fear your ideas being stolen. First, that is a bit narcissistic of you. Second, the blog (and its timestamp) are a way of staking your own claim. Blogs are citable under MLA and Chicago Style guidelines. Moreover, blogging allows you to develop a voice that is accessible, creates a visible audience that is attractive to publishers, and allows your curiosity to take you in new directions. I never thought my most popular blog post would be on chastity belts, but, well, here we are. I am okay with the fact that the number one google search for my name is “Sarah Bond Chastity Belt.” It means people are reading what I write and that, just maybe, they will read my book too.
1. It will Take a Village: Close to 100 people read, edited, contributed to, or brought me a libation during the writing of this book. I tried to thank as many as I could in the acknowledgements, but try and keep a running list in the first footnote of every chapter while you are writing or revising. Then move all of these chapter citations to the acknowledgements section when you are finished. There will indeed be people who leave your life (breakups or perhaps colleagues you lost touch with) and a whole bunch of new people that enter it during the course of writing your book. Why? Because you didn’t write this damn thing in a vacuum. You wrote this book while you were living your life and damn it, a lot of amazing and horrible things will happen in between your hours seeing it via Microsoft word over the next few years. Here is a PDF of my acknowledgements. I am truly thankful for all the help they gave me.
This certainly isn’t everything I learned, but it is a start. Some of the best tips actually come from ‘The Professor Is In‘ and from books written on this subject, but these are just a few of my own recommendations. Thanks for reading this blog for all these years and if you care to read the book, that is great too.Image graciously given to me by the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts for the cover of the book. It is an image of two imperial-era Roman potters. You are going to need a lot of gifts of time and resources from friends, colleagues, and… sometimes museums.
Éditeur : Gallimard
Collection : Bibliothèque de la Pléiade (n° 617)
ISBN : 9782070134861
Trad. du grec ancien par un collectif de traducteurs. Édition publiée sous la direction de Bernard Pouderon, Jean-Marie Salamito et Vincent Zarini avec la collaboration de Gabriella Aragione, Guillaume Bady, Philippe Bobichon, Cécile Bost, Florence Bouet, Marie-Odile Boulnois, Catherine Broc-Schmezer, Marie-Ange Calvet Sebasti, Matthieu Cassin, François Cassingena-Trévedy, Frédéric Chapot, Rose Varteni Chetanian, Laeticia Ciccolini, Hélène Grellier Deneux, Steve Johnston, Marlène Kanaan, Sébastien Morlet, Thierry Murcia, Pierre Pascal, Marie-Joseph Pierre, Jean Reynard et Joëlle Soler.
Textes traduits du grec ancien, du latin, de l'arabe, de l'arménien, de l'hébreu, du slavon et du syriaque. Index de Jérémy Delmulle
Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies is an electronic journal dedicated to the study of the Syriac tradition, published semi-annually (in January and July) by Beth Mardutho. Published since 1998, Hugoye seeks to offer the best scholarship available in the field of Syriac studies.
The word Hugoye, the plural form of Hugoyo, derives from the root hg' meaning 'to think, meditate, study'. Hugoyo itself means 'study, meditation'. In modern times, the term has been applied for academic studies; hence, Hugoye Suryoye translates as 'Syriac Studies'.
Volume 1 (1998)
Volume 2 (1999)
Volume 3 (2000)
Volume 4 (2001)
Volume 5 (2002)
Volume 6 (2003)
Volume 7 (2004)
Volume 8 (2005)
Volume 9 (2006)
Volume 10 (2007)
Volume 11 (2008)
Volume 12 (2009)
Volume 13 (2010)
Volume 14 (2011)
Volume 15 (2012)
Volume 16 (2013)
Volume 17 (2014)
Volume 18 (2015)
Volume 19 (2016)
Searching for a particular article, but not sure which volume it's in? Try searching our Author Index Page.