Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

2 hours 23 min ago How do Syria region coins enter the US and UK Markets? << Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Coincidentally, soon after my post on this ARCA raise a similar question about a similar group of coins in a similar state to the Spink ones
2 godz.2 godziny temu
How do Syria region coins enter the US and UK Markets? And why is there no provenance listed in the sale records? 
2 hours 36 min ago Ottoman paint shop to open to tourists << Archaeological News on Tumblr The remains of a 300-year-old Ottoman paint shop, which has been discovered at the site of the...
3 hours 54 sec ago MEDEA-project wil metaaldetectievondsten ontsluiten << ArcheoNet BE

Aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel werd onlangs het MEDEA-project gelanceerd. Het MEDEA-project heeft als doel de archeologische metaaldetectievondsten in Vlaanderen digitaal te ontsluiten. Zo hopen de VUB-onderzoekers niet alleen deze ondergewaardeerde vondstcategorie beter toegankelijk te maken voor onderzoek, maar ook de belangrijke bijdrage van hobbydetectoristen beter te belichten. Alle betrokkenen worden van harte uitgenodigd om het project mee vorm te geven.

Om dit te realiseren zal een publiek toegangelijke online databank ontwikkeld worden, geïnspireerd door het Portable Antiquities Scheme. Deze zal dienen als platform waar detectoristen, onderzoekers en onroerend-erfgoedbeheerders hun vondsten en kennis kunnen samenbrengen. Ook worden er afspraken gemaakt met het Agentschap Onroerend Erfgoed, zodat ook voor nieuwe detectievondsten MEDEA een geldig meldingskanaal kan worden.

Om het MEDEA-platform zo relevant mogelijk te maken en de wensen en noden van alle betrokken partijen in kaart te brengen willen de onderzoekers in januari 2015 een overlegronde organiseren, met onder meer panelgesprekken per stakeholder-groep. Ze nodigen iedereen die geïnteresseerd is in metaaldetectie en/of metaalvondsten graag uit om daaraan deel te nemen, en zo het project mee vorm te geven.

Het project is een initiatief van de vakgroep Kunstwetenschappen en Archeologie en iMinds- SMIT, externe partners (PACKED vzw), en met de steun van de Herculesstichting.

Interesse of verdere vragen? Stuur een mailtje naar, specifieer tot welke groep je behoort (detectorgebruiker, onderzoeker, beheersarcheoloog), en dan neemt men spoedig contact om de meest geschikte plaats (VUB campus Etterbeek of het kantoor van iMinds in Gent) en datum te bepalen.

3 hours 24 min ago C. Marconi, The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture << Compitum - publications


Clemente Marconi (éd.), The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture, Oxford, 2014.

Éditeur : Oxford University Press
728 pages
ISBN : 978-0-19-978330-4

The study of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture has a long history that goes back to the second half of the 18th century and has provided an essential contribution towards the creation and the definition of the wider disciplines of Art History and Architectural History. This venerable tradition and record are in part responsible for the diffused tendency to avoid general discussions addressing the larger theoretical implications, methodologies, and directions of research in the discipline. This attitude is in sharp contrast not only with the wider field of Art History, but also with disciplines that are traditionally associated with the study of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture, like Classics and Classical Archaeology. In recent years, the field has been characterized by an ever-increasing range of approaches, under the influence of various disciplines such as Sociology, Semiotics, Gender Theory, Anthropology, Reception Theory, and Hermeneutics. In light of these recent developments, this Handbook seeks to explore key aspects of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture, and to assess the current state of the discipline.

The Handbook includes thirty essays, in addition to the introduction, by an international team of leading senior scholars, who have played a critical role in shaping the field, and by younger scholars, who will express the perspectives of a newer generation. After a framing introduction written by the editor, which compares ancient and modern notions of art and architecture, the Handbook is divided into five sections: Pictures from the Inside, Greek and Roman Art and Architecture in the Making, Ancient Contexts, Post-Antique Contexts, and Approaches. Together, the essays in the volume make for an innovative and important book, one that is certain to find a wide readership.

Lire la suite...

3 hours 29 min ago More antiquities withdrawn after identification in Christie’s and Sotheby’s auctions in New York << Trafficking Culture

Following the identification and withdrawal of the rare Sardinian idol in Christie’s, Dr. Christos Tsirogiannis, Research Assistant in Trafficking Culture, identified from convicted dealers’ photographic archives three more antiquities in Christie’s and one in Sotheby’s due to be auctioned in New York.

In Christie’s, an Egyptian alabaster figural jug (lot 51), estimated at $150,000 -$250,000 and a Roman marble column capital (lot 139), estimated at $80,000-$120,000, were identified from the Symes-Michaelides archive, confiscated by the Greek authorities in 2006. Additionally, an Attic red-figured column krater (lot 95), estimated at $60,000-$90,000, was identified from the images that were confiscated in the early 1990’s by the American authorities from the dealer David Holland Swingler. All the antiquities were due to be auctioned by Christie’s in New York on 11 December. Furthermore, Dr. Tsirogiannis identified from the Symes-Michaelides archive an Egyptian diorite figure of a priest of the temple of Mut, late 25th/early 26th Dynasty, circa 670-610 B.C., estimated at $400,000-$600,000, due to be auctioned in Sotheby’s (lot 6) in New York on 12 December. The American, Italian and Egyptian authorities were immediately notified. The cases were presented in details on the websites of the Association for Research into Crimes against Art (ARCA), and ‘Looting Matters‘. All the antiquities identified in Christie’s were withdrawn before the auction, while the antiquity identified in Sotheby’s remained unsold. The investigation by the American authorities is ongoing.

3 hours 30 min ago K. B. Stratton, D. S. Kalleres, Daughters of Hecate. Women and Magic in the Ancient World << Compitum - publications


Kimberly B. Stratton, Dayna S. Kalleres (éd.), Daughters of Hecate. Women and Magic in the Ancient World, Oxford, 2014.

Éditeur : Oxford University Press
552 pages
ISBN : 978-0-19-534271-0

Daughters of Hecate unites for the first time research on the problem of gender and magic in three ancient Mediterranean societies: early Judaism, Christianity, and Graeco-Roman culture. The book illuminates the gendering of ancient magic by approaching the topic from three distinct disciplinary perspectives: literary stereotyping, the social application of magic discourse, and material culture.
The authors probe the foundations of, processes, and motivations behind gendered stereotypes, beginning with Western culture's earliest associations of women and magic in the Bible and Homer's Odyssey. Daughters of Hecate provides a nuanced exploration of the topic while avoiding reductive approaches. In fact, the essays in this volume uncover complexities and counter-discourses that challenge, rather than reaffirm, many gendered stereotypes taken for granted and reified by most modern scholarship.
By combining critical theoretical methods with research into literary and material evidence, Daughters of Hecate interrogates a false association that has persisted from antiquity, to early modern witch hunts, to the present day.

Lire la suite...

3 hours 49 min ago And the tide rushes in: now self-service photography arrives at the British Library << Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

About ten years ago, when digital cameras had appeared, I went down to the British Library and asked if I could use mine to photograph manuscript items.  The female librarian to whom I spoke looked very angry and rudely and indignantly refused.  I remember thinking that the response was more or less as if I had casually asked for the loan of her daughter for the night. 

Not long afterwards mobile phones acquired digital cameras.  But still the hard-faced refusal went on.  I commented, in these pages, on this nonsense.  Only last year I went to examine Ms. BL addit. 12150, but had to resort to verbally describing various paragraphing marks, because I had no means to take a snap of the pages.

But the tide has been with us, and finally sense has prevailed.  Yesterday I learned via a correspondent of an update to the British Library policies, here.

Self-service photography

From 5 January 2015 you will be able to photograph collection items using compact cameras, tablets and mobile phones in the following Reading Rooms:

  • Humanities – floors 1 and 2
  • Newsroom
  • Science – floors 2 and 3
  • Social Sciences

Photographic copies made may be used for personal reference purposes only and must not be used for a commercial purpose. Copyright and data protection laws may still apply.

Some material will be excluded from self-service photography, including items at risk of damage, or further damage. …

In March 2015 we will extend this service to include the following Reading Rooms:

  • Asian & African Studies
  • Business & IP Centre
  • Manuscripts
  • Maps
  • Philatelic
  • Rare Books & Music

It is very good news.  No doubt there will be teething problems, as the staff get used to the idea that snapping is normal.  But it should mean that a lot of material starts to appear online that might otherwise wait for years to appear in someone’s priority queue.

We live in fortunate times.  In the 19th century editors had to pay for collations of manuscripts, and thank the owners of the mss fulsomely for even being allowed to have such a thing.  It seems unthinkable now.  So also the nuisances of very recent times will quickly become historical curiosities.

4 hours 18 min ago A Miglionico un convegno sulle nuove Tecnologie per la Promozione del Patrimonio Culturale << Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali


convegno-miglionico-2014Si terrà lunedì 22 dicembre alle ore 17.30, nella sala conferenze del Castello del Malconsiglio di Miglionico, un convegno dal titolo: “Nuove Tecnologie per la Promozione del Patrimonio Culturale”.

L’evento rappresenta il momento conclusivo di un innovativo bando pubblico emanato dal GAL Bradanica nell’ambito del Programma di Sviluppo Rurale Regione Basilicata 2007/2013 e realizzato da un gruppo d’imprese con capofila la Società Cooperativa “Giubileo 2000”.

4 hours 50 min ago Nuove date per il Corso di Fabbricazione Digitale per i Beni Culturali << Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

3darcheolab-corsiSi svolgerà a Milano il 30 e 31 gennaio 2015 il Corso in Fabbricazione Digitale per i Beni Culturali organizzano. Le tecniche di fabbricazione digitale hanno aperto nuovi orizzonti nel settore dei Beni Culturali, offrendo soluzioni nuove e originali per lo studio, la tutela e la valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale.

4 hours 51 min ago The Basement of the Varusschlacht Museum << Adrian Murdoch (Bread and Circuses) An interesting article in the Osnabrücker Zeitung looking at the basement of the museum in Kalkriese with Susanne Wilbers-Rost. While the highlights of the museum are well-known, it is a useful insight into the bits and pieces that have been...
5 hours 14 min ago Birmingham Egyptological Symposium << Végh Zsuzsanna and Simon Zsolt (Agyagtábla, papirusz)
Online letölthető a következő kötet:  Proceedings of the First Birmingham Egyptology Symposium, University of Birmingham, 21st February 2014.

A tartalomból: 

Simmance, E. ‘The significance of location for the mediating statues of Amenhotep son of Hapu’.

Asbury, B. L. ‘Pitt-Rivers, the Painter and the Palaeolithic Period’.

Godefroid, A. ‘Book of the Dead Chapter 182: a case of related structure between the text and its vignette’.

Mushett Cole, E. ‘Did the political upheaval during the Late Bronze Age cause a change in the form of Egyptian control in the Levant? An analysis of the changes in the political landscape of the Levant during the late New Kingdom’.
5 hours 48 min ago Italiano il Visual Mapping sul Model of Falcon Cap a Doha in Qatar << Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

visual-mapping-qatarIn occasione della celebrazione del National Day in Qatar, le aziende ravennate Touchwindow e N.E.O. Project hanno realizzato uno spettacolare visual mapping sul Model of Falcon Cap di Doha in Qatar. Immagini, video e ricostruzioni tridimensionali si uniscono a suoni ed effetti speciali in una creazione spettacolare ed emozionante. 

6 hours 9 min ago New Thinking on Ownership gaps in NGA << Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Caught out by the Dancing Shiva scandal, the National Gallery of Australia is starting to take an innovative approach to provenance research on items already in the collection (Michaela Boland, 'National Gallery of Australia blitz on 54 ownership gaps' The Australian December 19, 2014). They will be taking a new look at  the gallery’s Asian collection (some 5000 objects) starting with the South Asian sculptures. As a result the Gallery:
has identified another 54 South Asian sculptures in its collection with gaps in their recent ownership histories, which could indicate they were also stolen. More than $13m in public funds was spent acquiring the antiquities between 1969 and 2011. The collection would be valued at considerably more than $13m now but in light of the federal government’s new guide to Collecting Cultural Material, the pieces have essentially been rendered worthless until a secure chain of ownership can be established.
These are two interesting innovations. The notion of "ownership gaps" seems a useful one to introduce (applicable to the non-mention of certain dealers - Medici/ Symes - in the reported collecting histories of items offered by certain auction houses). The second is the notion that - due to a series of proven abuses of the system - presumed innocence no longer guarantees that an object will retain its assigned value.
Today, the gallery will publish online pictures and acquisition details for the antiquities in question, including revealing for the first time how much was paid for the pieces in question, who owned them and who traded them. This information was historically considered commercial-in-confidence but Dr Vaughan admitted there were few instances of genuine commercial in confidence where public art galleries were concerned. “I think as a public institution we have a duty to be open — it’s public money and transactions of this kind should be out in the open,” he said.  
Again, it seems there is no arguing with that. But we could take it further if we accept that these items are all the common heritage of mankind, so even those in personal collections should be subject to the same ideals of transparency. Of course the usual culprits are dead against all this, almost as if they in reality have something to hide:
The Art Gallery of South Australia has been frustrated by dealers refusing to assist its trail-blazing provenance research but Dr Vaughan said the NGA would no longer deal with dealers, donors or auction houses who refused to be completely frank about the ownership history of new pieces or ones they had previously sold the gallery.
I suggest this is an attitude we all, collectors and observers, should adopt. Boycot the cowboys who buy stuff no-questions-asked and have no paperwork legitimating the objects they've been filling their stockrooms with all these years.

6 hours 13 min ago Georgia Artefact Hunters' Entitlement << Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

An artefact hunting case in south Georgia has been in the news quite a lot recently, an Albany man, Eddie Ballard (37) was reportedly charged with 58 counts of digging up artefacts on both public and private property and selling them, criminal trespass, destroying or marring a pre-historic site, and failure to notify the state archaeologist after an investigation which lasted for more than a year. His home was searched and artefacts were confiscated. It is alleged that he'd been digging up artifacts like arrowheads in and along the Flint River since 2011 and selling them without reporting them to state officials as state law requires. Department of Natural Resources officers investigating say Ballard made thousands of dollars selling the artefacts, so some of the charges against him are felonies. The evidence against the man includes You Tube videos which Ballard shot of himself digging up artefacts'  (!). The man was arrested in summer of 2013, but as investigations progressed, the original indictment was re-issued.

Ballard reportedly pleaded guilty to to 45 counts of artefact theft last week, and was sentenced to 3 years behind bars. It seems he'd been in jail since his arrest.

There's that pious US monetary overvaluation again: "Prosecutors said some of the artifacts he stole are priceless because of their rarity". State DNR Law Enforcement rangers say the stolen artefacts in South Georgia "bring in hundreds of thousands of dollars each year".

But what is really sickening about this whole episode is the way the removal of cultural property (that of the indigenous people of the North American continent and part of its rich cultural history) is treated by the local judicial system as on a par with the destruction of "wildlife" (Georgia DNR Law Enforcement Corporal Greg Wade) and "natural history":
So that people understand that the arrow heads and other artifacts are part of our natural history.  And were significant.  And there are significant safeguards to protect this natural history," said Dougherty D.A. Greg Edwards.
 I wonder what the Muscogee (Creek) think of that. How utterly insulting.

Jim Wallace, 'Albany man arrested for stealing artifacts' WALB Jun 08, 2013

Jessica Fairley, 'Alleged artifact digger indicted', WFXL 14th August 2013

Jim Wallace, 'Artifact theft indictment re-issued', WALB Apr 03, 2014
Jim Wallace, 'South Georgia artifact thieves video their own crimes' WALB Dec 17, 2014 

8 hours 24 min ago How did these coins enter the UK Market? << Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Spink's, linked to past sales of Koh Ker statues and supplier to the ACCG, is primarily known as a coin shop. Their recent Auction: 14007 ("Ancient, British and Foreign Coins and Commemorative Medals") held a few days ago, contemporary with conflict and looting going on in not-so-distant Syria, caught my eye. I was discussing the case of a coin yesterday (Auction 14007, Lot: 484) where the sellers were telling us (more or less) where it was found, the exact date, and what had happened to it since it was dug up to legitimise it as a genuine British find. What a contrast with three other lots I passed in the catalogue while looking for it.

As we have all seen, dealers are bending over backwards to say "there is no recently looted stuff from Syria and Iraq coming on the market". I ask how they can tell that when they obviously have no information to pass on to prospective buyers that the items they sell are not objects recently surfaced and smuggled from the region being silently passed off as though "from an old collection".

Take these three lots, all coins minted in and circulating within precisely the region currently being affected by conflict looting and theft. Two of them small high value pieces, easily smuggled, the other the sort of low value bulk find that comes from mass digging of ancient sites for collectables (the Syrian equivalent of 'Roman grots') Where, in the sales description is any indication that the consigners can provide assurance that these items are not the proceeds of such activities? If the seller has such documentation, why is it not being presented (or mentioned) here in the sales offer? Is it because the seller is convinced that the thought that care should be exercised here to avoid buying dodgy goods has crossed the mind of a single one of the buyers in their auction?

Lot: 46 (x) Umayyad, temp. 'Abd al-Malik (685-705), AV Dinar, 4.27g, mintless type (Damascus), AH78 (Bernardi 41; A.125), good very fine
Lot: 46 
 Lot: 47 (x) Umayyad, temp. 'Abd al-Malik, AV Dinar, 4.24g, mintless type (Damascus), AH79 (Bernardi 42; A.125), very fine
Lot: 47
Lot: 48 (x) Umayyad and Abbasid, AE Fals (c.60), an interesting group, many with mint names: Dimashq, Halab, Homs, Jordan, Ramlah, Tabaria, fine to very fine, some scarce (lot)
Lot: 48 
Responsible collectors will obviously want to verify that any items they are considering buying are not coming from contemporary or past conflict zones and are not the products of looting, coercion or theft. The information offered by Spink in these three cases is not sufficient to do that, even though elsewhere in the same catalogue there are coins offered with even the actual date of finding given. When are UK dealers going to demonstrate a commitment to supporting responsible collection by dealing only in material whose licit origins can be guaranteed and verified?

9 hours 1 min ago Grave of Confederate soldier dug up in Georgia << Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

AP, 'Grave of Confederate soldier dug up in Georgia; 'Graverobbing' investigated', Associated Press Dec 18, 2014

Authorities in Georgia say the grave of a former soldier has been dug up at the Old Bethel Church Cemetery in Knoxville. The deceased was a first lieutenant in the Confederate Army who had died Nov. 9, 1866. The suspects may have been looking for saleable artefacts that were buried with his body. So far authorities have been able to contact the family of the deceased.  No doubt artefact collectors in denial will be suggesting the authorities concentrate their search on seeking giant gophers with a taste for artefacts.
13 hours 54 min ago Antinoos – Keisari Hadrianuksen Rakastettu << Maarit-Johanna (History of the Ancient World) Antinoosin rintakuva Villa Adrianassa lähellä Tivolia. Museo Pio-Clementino, Sala Rotunda. Valokuva Marie-Lan Nguyen.

Keisari Hadrianus, 117-138 jKr, on yksi monisärmäisimmistä Rooman keisareista. Hän oli erittäin älykäs , hän pystyi väittelemään aikansa merkittävämpien oppineiden kanssa, hän oli kiinnostunut arkkitehtuurista ja oli mieltynyt vaarallisiin metsästysretkiin. Hadrianus muisti ihmiset ja heidän kasvonsa niin hyvin, että hän ei tarvinnut nomenclatoreja (Nomenclator-A Latin Dictionary) , joita useimmat käyttivät tunnistamaan alaisiaan ja anomusten esittäjiä. Hadrianuksella oli nomenclatoreja näön vuoksi, mutta hän itse korjasi usein näiden tekemiä virheitä. Hän sääti lakeja orjien suojelemiseksi, hän kielsi kastraation (ainoastaan lääketieteellisistä syistä tehdyt kastraatiot olivat hyväksyttäviä). Hadrianus myöskin osoitti suurta anteliaisuutta ystävilleen. Hän kuitenkin samalla vakoili heitä ja määräsi heitä teloitettavaksi pienemmästäkin epäilystä. Hadrianuksen kaltaisen miehen oli vaikea löytää sydänystävää. Hänen vaimonsa Sabina ei sitä ollut. Hadriannus onkin todennut, että hän olisi eronnut vaimostaan jos hänellä olisi ollut samanlaiset vapaudet kuin tavallisella kansalaisella. Hadrianus rakastui lopulta täydestä sydämmestään vähäaasialaiseen nuoreen mieheen Antinookseen.

Keisari Hadrianus ja Antinoos.Keisari Hadrianus ja Antinoos.

“Tämä on siis uusi jumala, Antinoos, joka oli keisari Hadrianuksen palvelija ja orja hänen kielletyissä huveissan; olento, jota palvottiin keisarin määräyksen vuoksi ja rangaistuksen pelossa, jonka kaikki tiesivät ja myönsivät olevan ihminen, eikä edes hyvä ja ansiokas ihminen, vaan isäntänsä himojen likainen ja halveksittava välikappale. Tämä hävytön ja pahennusta herättävä poika kuoli…ja miten täysin keisarin kieroutunut intohimo säilyi sen halveksittavan vastaanottajan kuoltua, ja miten suuresti hänen isäntänsä oli omistautunut hänen muistolleen…ja on tehnyt hänen kunniattomuutensa ja häpeänsä kuolemattomaksi”. Tämä sitaatti osoittaa miten Hadrianuksen rakkauselämä on herättänyt järkytystä ja paheksuntaa jälkimaailman historiankirjoituksessa. Myöhäisantiikista lähtien moralistit kuten kirkkoisä Athanasios ovat kauhistelleet Antinooksen sukupuolta. Nykylukijoita taas on kauhistuttanut se seikka, että Antinoos oli vasta teini-ikäinen, kun Hadrianus ihastui häneen. Hadrianuksen omana aikana roomalaiset kertoivat paheksuen huhuja, joiden mukaan Hadrianus olisi ollut kiinnostunut vanhemmista miehistä. Suurimman osan hallituskauttaan Hadrianus vietti matkustellen imperiumin rajoilla. Tämä johtui osittain siitä, ettei keisari sietänyt Rooman juonittelujen ja skandaalien leimaamaa ilmapiiriä.

Antinooksen pää, Hadrianuksen huvila, Tivoli. Antinoos oli kauneutensa lisäksi myös älykäs, rohkea ja diplomaattinen. Nämä ominaisuudet eivät kuitenkaan suojelleet häntä herjauksilta, joita myöhempien aikojen historiankirjoittajat ovat häneen kohdistaneet. Antinooksen pää, Hadrianuksen huvila, Tivoli. Antinoos oli kauneutensa lisäksi myös älykäs, rohkea ja diplomaattinen. Nämä ominaisuudet eivät kuitenkaan suojelleet häntä herjauksilta, joita myöhempien aikojen historiankirjoittajat ovat häneen kohdistaneet.

Vuonna 123 Hadrianus matkusti Bithyniassa, joka sijaitsee Vähä-Aasian luoteisosassa. Siellä hänen seuraansa liittyi teini-ikäinen poika Antinoos. Antinoos ei ollut mikä tahansa viihdyttäjä, joka otettiin mukaan keisarin hetkellisestä oikusta. Antinoos on luultavasti ollut maineikkaan perheen poika, joka liittyi keisarin saattueeseen päästäkseen keisarilliseksi paasiksi. Antinoos oli silmiinpistävän kaunis kuten voimme havaita häntä esittävistä veistoksista. Hänen kauneutensa kiinnitti keisarin huomion, mutta Hadrianuksen syvempiä tunteita koskettivat Antinooksen terävä äly ja muut hyvät luonteenpiirteet.

Hadrianus oli intohimoinen filhelleeni, joka oli onnellisemmillaan uppoutuessaan kreikkalaiseen kulttuuriin. Ateena oli Rooman jälkeen se kaupunki, jolle keisari soi eniten huomiotaan, rahaa sekä uusia julkisia rakennuksia. Tuon ajan kreikkalaisten miesten tapana oli luoda suhteita nuoriin miehiin, efebeihin. Vanhemman miehen tehtävänä oli ryhtyä rakastajansa hyväntekijäksi ja opastaa hänen moraalista, henkistä ja fyysistä kehitystään. Kreikkalaismielinen Hadrianus on saattanut haluta itselleen oman efebin.

Nuori Antinoos. Pergamon Museo, Berliini. Nuori Antinoos. Pergamon Museo, Berliini.

Hadrianus palasi takaisin Roomaan vuonna 125 jKr. ja lähti Kreikkaan vuonna 128 jKr. Suhde kukoisti koko matkojen välisen ajan ja Antinooksella oli merkittävä asema keisarin lähipiirissä. Lähteiden perusteella voidaan olettaa, että Antinoos vastasi Hadrianuksen aitoihin ja syviin tunteisiin.

Vuonna 130 Hadrianuksen saattue saapui Egyptiin. Niilin varrella Antinoos kuoli epäselvissä olosuhteissa. Hänen kuolemansa ei ilmeisestikään ollut luonnollinen. Eräs Hadrianuksen ajan elämänkerturi toteaa: “Hän menetti suosikkinsa Antinooksen purjehtiessaan Niilillä ja itki tätä kuin nainen”. Toisen, luultavasti Hadrianuksen oman kertomuksen mukaan “hän putosi”, mutta verbi on valittu siten, että se voidaan myös kääntää “hänet työnnettiin”.

Antinoos, poika josta tuli jumala. Hadrianuksen julistettua Antinoos jumalaksi, häntä esittäviä patsaita ilmestyi kaikkialle valtakuntaan. Näin tehtiin kunnioituksesta keisaria kohtaan ja osaksi myös Antinooksessa henkilöityvän maskuliinisen kauneuden ylistämiseksi. Antinoos, poika josta tuli jumala. Hadrianuksen julistettua Antinoos jumalaksi, häntä esittäviä patsaita ilmestyi kaikkialle valtakuntaan. Näin tehtiin kunnioituksesta keisaria kohtaan ja osaksi myös Antinooksessa henkilöityvän maskuliinisen kauneuden ylistämiseksi.

Nämä yksinkertaiset väittämät ovat synnyttäneet paljon spekulaatioita. Surmasiko hän rakastajansa riidan jälkeen vai hukuttiko Antinooksen vihamielinen hoviväki? tekikö Antinoos itsemurhan vain kuoliko hän silvottuna oudossa pakanallisessa riitissä?. Luultavimmin hän hukkui jokeen päätellen siitä perusteellisuudesta, jolla egyptiläiset paneutuivat hänen kulttiinsa. He uskoivat, että kuolema Niilin vedessä oli pyhä tapa kuolla. Voimakkaiden virtausten vuoksi Antinooksen olisi tarvinnut olla erittäin uhkarohkea tai itsemurha aikeissa mennäkseen Niiliin uimaan vapaaehtoisesti.

Kenties melkein 18-vuotias Antinoos tiesi, että hänestä oli tulossa liian vanha osaansa tai ehkä Hadrianuksessa näkyi jo merkkejä sairaudesta, johon hän lopulta menehtyi. Ehkä Antinoos uskoi, että uhraamalla itsensä Egyptin pyhälle joelle hän saisi jumalat ottamaan vastaan hänen elämänsä rakastettunsa puolesta. Hadrianuksen suru oli pohjaton. Antinoos julistettiin jumalaksi, häntä esittäviä muistomerkkejä nousi ympäri imperiumin, ja hänen kuolinpaikalleen perustettiin Antinoopoliksen kaupunki.

Antinoos egyptiläisten näkemyksen mukaan. Antinoos egyptiläisten näkemyksen mukaan.

Lähde : Philip Matyszak & Joanne Berry : Lives of the Romans

Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: Antiikin historia, Antiikin Rooma, Antinoos, Hadrianus, Keisarin rakastettu, Rooman keisarit
14 hours 11 min ago Saturnalian laughter << Mary Beard (A Don's Life)


I have discovered a new role for myself over the last few years. I am the old lady who pops up at this time of year and says "gosh, did you know, the ancient Romans invented Christmas". I mean Sarturnalia.

I have just done this again, to great amusement all round (me especially), at a gig at the Bloomsbury Theatre. Robin Ince amd Tony Law had got a group of people together -- comics and others -- to celebrate an 'atheists'' (or at least 'non-Christian') Christmas, with historians; on Monday night, that was me and my mate Simon Goldhill (you see him above).

We were told thay we didn't need to pretend to be funny; that was someone else's job; we just had to go right on stage and do our stuff:  *nervous moi?  So I gave a spiel about what Romans did on Christmas Day (presents and getting pissed, basically + plus some drunken old men). And Simon gave a prequel of his new book (which touches on those weird early 20th century types who invented Nine Lessons from Kings -- not going to say more, you'll read soon).

I guess we were funny enough.

The truth was that the whole show was an eye opener for us academics. Of course we were way out of our depth. But it was good to watch the real comics in the dressing room, getting prepped for their performance.

To be honest, they seemed as anxious as we were (and they were obliged to make us laugh). If so i'm sure all will wirj out


15 hours 13 min ago "No! Absolutely not! Not a word of it is true! I did not have... << Ancient Art

"No! Absolutely not! Not a word of it is true! I did not have sex with her!"

Even after 1000s of years, some things really do not change: shown here are tablets from the ancient Mesopotamian city of Nuzi (modern Yorghan Tepe, Iraq), which record a court case that took place against the mayor. The Semitic Museum provide the following description:

Thus Kushshi-harbe, the mayor of Nuzi, vehemently denied the accusation of illicit sexual relations, one of the numerous allegations of corruption lodged against him by the citizens of Nuzi. Fourteen largely complete tablets, found in the palace at Location A on the site plan, record depositions against the mayor; other fragments have also been identified as belonging to the dossier. None, however, preserves the court’s verdict. In Tablets 1 and 2 Kushshi-harbe and his henchmen are charged, among other things, with making a door for his private house from wood belonging to the palace, looting a sealed house, numerous thefts and kidnapping.

1 & 2: Tablet, Yorghan Tepe, Stratum II, L2. (AASOR 16, 8; AASOR 16, 1).

This photo was taken while at the Semitic Museum last year at their exhibit: Nuzi and the Hurrians: Fragments from a Forgotten Past, you can check out some of the others taken while at the museum here

Courtesy of the Semitic Museum at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Photo taken by B. Kelly.

15 hours 14 min ago D. Carmona, La escena típica de la epipólesis. De la épica a la historiografía << Compitum - publications


D. Carmona, La escena típica de la epipólesis. De la épica a la historiografía, Rome, 2014.

Éditeur : Quasar
Collection : Quaderni di Seminari Romani di cultura greca
296 pages
ISBN : 978-88-7140-563-6
31 €

Sommario: I. Introducción: contenido y objetivos. 1. La epipólesis: estado de la cuestión y objetivos. 2. Metodología. II. La escena típica de la epipólesis en la Iliíada y su adaptación a la historiografía por parte de Tucídides. 1. La epipólesis en la Ilíada. 2. La incorporación de la escena típica de la epipólesis a la historiografía. III. La escena típica de la epipólesis en la historiografía grecolatina: tipología y contenido argumentativo. 1. Según se muestre el proceso de emisión y de recepción del mensaje. 2. Según el momento en que se produzca la epipólesis: antes, durante o después. 3. Según la superficie en la que se lleva a cabo la epipólesis (tierra o mar). 4. Asamblea de tropas y epipólesis: contenido argumentativo y evolución. IV. La epipólesis y la enárgeia: claridad, viveza y heroísmo en las descripciones de batalla. La caracterización del general-soldado. 1. Retórica e historiografía: La importancia de la ékphrasis a la hora de escri­ bir historia. 2. La insercioón de la escena típica de la epipólesis en las descripciones de ba­ talla con grandes dosis de enárgeia. 3. La epipólesis y el ensalzamiento de la figura del general como heéroe homéri­ co: la figura del general-soldado. Conclusiones. Bibliografía. Apéndice: corpus de epipólesis. Index nominum et rerum.

Source : Quasar

15 hours 14 min ago R. Brouwer, The Stoic Sage. The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates << Compitum - publications


R. Brouwer, The Stoic Sage. The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, Cambridge, 2014.

Éditeur : Cambridge University Press
Collection : Cambridge Classical Studies
242 pages
ISBN : 9781107024212

After Plato and Aristotle, the Stoics, from the 3rd century BCE onwards, developed the third great classical conception of wisdom. This book offers a reconstruction of this pivotal notion in Stoicism, starting out from the two extant Stoic definitions, 'knowledge of human and divine matters' and 'fitting expertise'. It focuses not only on the question of what they understood by wisdom, but also on how wisdom can be achieved, how difficult it is to become a sage, and how this difficulty can be explained. The answers to these questions are based on a fresh investigation of the evidence, with all central texts offered in the original Greek or Latin, as well as in translation. The Stoic Sage can thus also serve as a source book on Stoic wisdom, which should be invaluable to specialists and to anyone interested in one of the cornerstones of the Graeco-Roman classical tradition.

Source : Cambridge University Press

15 hours 17 min ago Spanish/Catalan/Portugese Open Access Journals on the Ancient World << Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online) The following list includes the titles of 181 open access periodicals in the Spanish - Catalan - Portuguese languages focusing on the study of the ancient world. It is a extracted from AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies.  If you know of others, please bring them to my attention by leaving a comment below.
15 hours 46 min ago POTITVS RERVM OMNIVM << Javier Andreu (Oppida Imperii Romani)

[Retrato de Augusto capite uelato recuperado en 2009 en Bilbilis (Catalayud), recientemente publicado: MARTÍN-BUENO, M., SÁENZ, C., y GODOY, C.: "El Augusto capite uelato de Bilbilis (Calatayud, Zaragoza)", en Actas de la VII Reunión de Escultura Romana en Hispania, Santiago de Compostela, 2013, pp. 182-187 y cartel de la conferencia con la que cerramos este post y, también, el año de Augusto en Oppida Imperii Romani]

2014 ha sido, indiscutiblemente, a nivel investigador -más allá de la efeméride- el año de Augusto. Como los lectores de Oppida Imperii Romani saben ya, en este año que pronto cerramos se han cumplido dos mil años de la muerte, en el 14 d. C., del primer Princeps de Roma, Cayo Octavio Turino, después llamado Augusto. Ha sido un año intenso en materia investigadora con dos principales citas académicas de referencia -amén de algunas otras también importantes que se han llevado a cabo en Mérida o en Cascante- que, si el lector no pudo seguir, habrá de estar atento a la publicación de los resultados:

[1] Coloquio sobre la Hispania de Augusto, organizado por Julio Mangas y por Ana Rodríguez Mayorgas en la Universidad Complutense de Madrid durante el pasado mes de Abril. Reunió medio centenar de contribuciones que están ya siendo editadas para su próxima publicación (en los Anejos de Gerión) en un encuentro que, acaso, tuvo un enfoque más histórico y menos arqueológico aunque, obviamente, se presentaron trabajos desde ambas perspectivas pues no puede ser de otro modo cuando se trata de investigación en Ciencias de la Antigüedad como hemos reivindicado tantas veces en este espacio.

[2] Coloquio internacional August i les províncies Occidentals, segunda edición de la serie Tarraco Biennal, en Tarragona. Un sensacional coloquio -también lo fue el primero- en el que, efectivamente, volvió a ponerse de manifiesto cómo en materia de Antigüedad son las novedades arqueológicas las que han de depararnos más sorpresas y es que, efectivamente, nuestro caudal de conocimiento se ha incrementado, sobre todo -respecto de Augusto- en este sentido. Nosotros mismos contribuimos a este encuentro -también al anterior, en aquél caso con una panorámica sobre Augusto y el territorio vascón- con la presentación del nuevo programa de retratos -que podría incluir al propio Augusto- descubierto el pasado verano en Los Bañales (pincha aquí). 

¿Se ha avanzado mucho en este año en la investigación sobre Augusto? me preguntaba hace unos días una colega del Grupo GRAECAPTA de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Navarra. Obviamente, la respuesta es clara: no ha habido grandes novedades, desde luego. Además, es cierto que en los últimos años, en materia histórica, por ejemplo, ya las había habido con la constatación de los viajes de Augusto a la Península (pincha aquí para una bien documentada síntesis de los mismos), con la delimitación de la relación de los viajes de Augusto con la promoción jurídica de comunidades (pincha aquí) o con la mejor fijación del calendario de la experiencia augústea en la Península a través de documentos como el Edicto del Bierzo (HEp7, 378). Pero, ciertamente, como sucedió hace algunos años en el Bimilenario de los Flavios, este tipo de reuniones han contribuido a reivindicar el papel de Augusto como pater Hispaniarum (así se le denomina con notable acierto en SÁNCHEZ MORENO, E. (Coord.): Protohistoria y Antigüedad de la Península Ibérica, Sílex, Madrid, 2007) y a poner de relieve que fue, precisamente, su acción política en la Península Ibérica la que introdujo a las Hispaniae en la órbita administrativa y jurídica romana preparando el saeculum aureum que, a partir de los Flavios, viviría el solar peninsular.

Con ese espíritu -y para dar continuidad a los dos anteriores posts que, sobre el "año de Augusto" se han publicado en Oppida Imperii Romani (pincha aquí con una conferencia pronunciada el pasado mes de Junio en la Semana Romana de Cascante, o aquí con una lista de recursos digitales, a partir de la recomendable página Qué Aprendemos Hoy)- este blog quiere cerrar el año compartiendo con todos vosotros una postrera conferencia  dictada el pasado día 18 de Diciembre, Jueves, en la Facultad de Derecho/Zuzenbide Fakultatea de la Universidad el País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, en el campus de San Sebastián, un repaso a la política augústea -en materia de promoción de comunidades pero, también, en materia de administración y puesta en explotación de los recursos- llevado a cabo desde la óptica de un espacio geográfico que se concibe, cada vez más claramente, como un "laboratorio" de prácticas políticas y administrativas para Roma desde, prácticamente, el primer cuarto del siglo II a. C.: el Valle del Ebro. ¡Espero que el audio y el material que le acompaña sean de vuestro agrado (nos estrenamos con SlideShare) y, sobre todo, como siempre pretendemos, resulten útiles y más en el marco de la conmemoración, que clausuramos de este modo en nuestro blog, de este -también en este año de 2014, potitus rerum omnium (RG. 34, 1)!

Audio íntegro de la conferencia "Augusto y la política ciudadana en el Valle Medio del Ebro" (San Sebastián, 18 de Diciembre de 2014)

Diapositivas de la conferencia "Augusto y la política ciudadana en el Valle Medio del Ebro" (San Sebastián, 18 de Diciembre de 2014)